Saudi Fund for Development, TAPI Pipeline Construction Company, Turkmengaz, Afghan Gas Corporation, Interstate Gas Systems, GAIL, Islamic Development Bank, Asian Development Bank
Historically, Turkmenistan, Afghanistan, Pakistan, and India have had uneasy relationships with one another that frequently erupt into violence
“A peace pipeline” was first proposed in the 1990s and has now broken ground in Afghanistan. The pipeline design originates in Turkmenistan's Galkynysh oil field and passes through Afghanistan along Kandahar-Herat Highway before turning to Pakistan and ending in India's Punjab region. The pipeline is designed not only to unite the countries in the development and maintenance of the pipeline but also to create jobs for war veterans and for populations vulnerable to violent extremism. Water pipelines, transportation lines, and a fiber optic cable system may also follow the pipeline route in the future to link the countries.
Peace Engineering Takeaway
A joint pipeline running between the countries would require cooperation, maintenance, and diplomatic relationships between stakeholders, which ideally promotes peace in the region. The pipeline itself is controversial, as dependence on crude oil contributes to climate change and may cause long-term unrest. The proposed pipeline runs through regions of Afghanistan with high rates of terrorism, requiring state-provided security to protect infrastructure. The pipeline is supported by the U.S. and Saudi Arabia as an alternative to the Iran-Pakistan-India peace pipeline, or IPI, to sabotage Iran's regional interests.